Monday, 29 October 2018

Meaning and Classification of Carbohydrates

As we know that our body requires nutrients in various amounts. The amount of nutrients is different in different foods. By consuming different food products in right proportion, we get proper nutrition and good health. So in this basically we are going to talk about one of important nutrient, which is Meaning and Classification of Carbohydrates.


Meaning and Classification of Carbohydrates


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Meaning

Carbohydrate is an important nutrient which provides energy to our body. It is an organic compound made up by carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Sugar is the basic unit of carbohydrates.Its chemical formulae is C6H1206. Carbohydrates are manufactured in plants.

Classification of carbohydrates

Chemically, carbohydrates are divided into three groups which are based on units of sugar present in them. Following are Classification of Carbohydrate as as:

1. Monosaccharides

It also has three category

A. Glucose
B. Frustose
C. Galactose


2. Disaccharides

It aslo has three category

A. Sucrose
B. Lactose
C. Maltose


3. Polysaccharides

It has five cafegory

A. Starch
B. Glycogen
C. Cellulose
D. Dextrin
E. Pectin


1. Monosaccharides

These are simple carbohydrates and have only single unit of sugar. Monosaccharides are crystalline, soluble in water and sweet to taste. They do not require digestion in the body. Glucose, fructose and Galactose come under this category.

(a) Glucose

It is also known as ''Grape Sugar' also. All types of Carbohydrates are converted into glucose after digestion. That is why glucose is given to a patient to provide immediate energy.

(b) Fructose

It is known as Fruit sugar also. It is mostly found in fruits.

(c) Galactose

It is found in milk On digestion lactose is converted into one molecule of galactose and one molecule of glucose.

2. Diasaccharides

As is evident from the name, it has two units of sugar. These are crystalline soluble in water and sweet to taste. These are converted into monosaecharides with the help of digestive juices in the body. For example, sucrose, maltose and lactose.

(a) Sucrose

It is found in sugarcane juice, beet root or palm tree. On digestion, one molecule of sucrose is converted into one molecule of glucose and one molecule of Frustose.

(b) Maltose

Maltose get converted into two molecule of glucose and generally found in sprouted cereals.

(c) Lactose

Lactose is found in milk After. digestion it gets converted into one molecule of galactose and one molecule of glucose.

3. Polysaccharides

These are complex carbohydrates and have more than two units of sugar. Normally these are insoluble in water and are tasteless. These are converted into simple carbohydrates (glucose) with the help of various enzymes during digestion. These carbohydrates become digestible only after cooking. Starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrin and pectin come under this category. Cellulose is indigestible and is also known as fibre.

(a) Starch

Many units of glucose together form one molecule of starch. It is found in seeds, roots, tubers and thick portions of plants. During digestion firstly starch is converted into dextrin, then into maltose and in the end into glucose. It is absorbed in the form of głucose. Starch is a cheap source of carbohydrate.

(b) Glycogen

It is known as animal starch also because animals store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in their body. When required by the body glycogen is converted into glucose to give energy.

(c) Dextrin

It is not found in direct form in the nature. When starch is cooked or digested, it is converted into Dextrin first. Dextrin is more light and sweet than starch.

(d) Cellulose and Hemicellulose

They are known as fibre also. They are different from other carbohydrates as they don't provide any nutrition but still necessary to be included in the diet because they tend to increase the quantity of waste matter in the intestine. This helps in the excretion of stools, hence prevents constipation.

(e) Pectin

Like cellulose it is also not digested in the body It is found in fresh and less ripened fruits like guava, karonda etc. It is used in preparing jelly.

At last I only want to say that carbohydrate is one of the most important nutrient that every living things want to survive. So these all are the Meaning and Classification of Carbohydrates.

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